Jesus set aside the original covenant which included animal sacrifice and temple worship. He replaced it with a new and better covenant wherein worship consists of doing the will of God in our daily lives (Romans 12:1-2).
It was inevitable in that in the generation that followed the apostles, leaders arose who did not know Jesus. Like the pharaoh who arose not knowing Joseph (Acts 7:18), these leaders subjugated the disciples (Acts 20:30) to themselves. By doing so, these leaders shut off the kingdom of God from the disciples and did not enter themselves (Matthew 23:13).
God had intended all along to replace the first covenant with the second because it was impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sin (Hebrews 10:4). It merely a system instituted for a time until the more permanent administration of the eternal covenant could be established (Hebrews 9:9-10; 13:20-21).